In the years before WWII, Victor Records in the U.S. was, for the most part, the largest presence in South America when it came to the distribution and recording of music, as a result of an agreement made with its sister company HMV in England (HMV would essentially have the other continents to record). They also had a pressing plant in Argentina, which was a large market for Victor. That’s not to say there wasn’t competition – Odeon, for example, recorded countless records across the continent, many under the moniker Disco Nacional, and there were a smattering of independents – but Victor had the lock. However, after WWII, independents cropped up where only majors had dared to tread (and barely in many cases). One instance would be the Mendez label in Bolivia, featured in an earlier entry. Another would be Peru’s Sono Radio label, where today’s post hails from.
I’m not sure when Sono Radio began production (it lasted at least until the 70s), but I’m betting this record stems from ca. 1948-1950 or so. According to reader Efrain Rozas, the phrase “Muliza con fuga de Huayno” means that the song begins as a muliza, then ends in the typical Indian huayno style of Peru, with a fuga, a fast section, in the middle. The muliza as a song form was, according to various sources, brought to Peru by Argentine mule drivers (the name muliza comes from mulero, for mule) during the late colonial period (ca. 1760-1810). The Indian huayno sound was incorporated into the music in the mid-20th century and gave the muliza an indigenous quality that it lacked up until then. Another example of older folkloric musical styles being appropriated, adapted, and transformed.
While I could find no information on this fine ensemble (violins, woodwinds, brass, and guitar), I was really taken by the strings. Particulary the break at about 1:20 in the piece.
Early recorded music from Andean regions seems to have been largely ignored by contemporary record companies. However, Arhoolie has the fine Huayno Music of Peru, Volume 1, which contains several earlier recordings. There is also this nice site! I would also recommend Fiona Wilson’s article “Indians and Mestizos: Identity and Urban Popular Culture in Andean Peru,” from the Journal of Southern African Studies 26/2 (2000): 239-253.
Label: Sono Radio
Issue Number: 1046
Matrix Number: ISR-89